Ethanol is a fuel that is alcohol based and is made by distilling and fermenting crops which are broken down to very simple sugars. In some parts ethanol is usually made from crops that are starchy like the sorghum or maize. Research shows that consumed ethanol production was about eleven percent in the United States from all the corn that was grown in the year two thousand and four. In other parts ethanol is created from sugar cane where by those parts set goals of having all the cars that are on their roads to be using gasoline or ethanol. Ethanol is mainly used in alcoholic beverages as well as producing fuel that is referred to as the biofuel an alternative fuel to gasoline. Ethanol is very easy to process as well as manufacture; it also is renewable unlike the petroleum that can not be renewed. 

To produce ethanol there are a few steps to follow the first one is fermentation, ethanol usually is made by means of microbial fermentation of sugar, which only works with sugars directly.

There are two components of plants that are major and both made of the sugars this is the cellulose and starch, which principally can be converted to sugars to use in fermentation. The corn and the sugarcane are the only economical sugars that can be converted with the many activities in the cellulosic ethanol, in which the cellulose area of the plant is usually broken down and converted to ethanol. For ethanol to be used as fuel it undergoes the distillation process where most water is removed through distillation, however it does not all come out so it undergoes a another process called dehydration with which there are five stages that are undergone to remove the water that remained from the azoetropic the ethanol and water mixture. 

The process entails the azeotropic distillation that involves adding the cyclohexane and the benzene to the azeotropic. When added, they form vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium then it is distilled it generates anhydrous ethanol and a mixture of water vapor and benzene or cyclohexane it then is condensed and creates two phase mixture of liquid. An alternative way known as the extractive distillation, is adding the ternary components increasing volatility of ethanol relatively. When distilled it produces ethanol that is anhydrous at the top of the column. There are engines that are specifically designed to use the ethanol based fuel which is commonly used by the automobile vehicles, though other vehicles are able to consume it to. With the ethanol blends a problem arises when less vapor is evaporated to spark the ignition, the ignition does not start for the cold weather affects the temperatures of the car hence not enough heat to boost vaporization. Ethanol consists of approximately thirty four percent less energy that is used per unit in volume compared to the gasoline consumption. Ethanol is also used to help in developing airplanes fuel for it is economical and in the electricity transformers that supply electricity.

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